Volume 4, Issue 1, June 2020, Page: 1-16
The Impact of Biosolids on the Geotechnical Properties of Some Soils of the Niger Delta Sub-region, Nigeria
So-ngo Clifford Teme, Institute of Geosciences & Space Technology (IGST), Rivers State University (RSU), Port Harcourt, Nigeria; Geology Department, Rivers State University (RSU), Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Vincent Onuoha, Exploration Department, Nigerian Agip Oil Company Limited, Mile 4, Diobu Port Harcour, Nigeria
Received: Jun. 28, 2019;       Accepted: Jan. 3, 2020;       Published: Feb. 26, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.jb.20200401.11      View  283      Downloads  73
Abstract
The production of biosolids (human wastes) in the Niger Delta of Nigeria has been taking place since man inhabited the sub-region. One of the negative impacts of biosolids is the changes to the geo-environmental conditions of the soils of the sub-region. Studies carried out on the effects of biosolids in the Niger Delta Sub-region over the last sixteen years indicate that the conventional geo-environmental engineering properties of the soils have been altered significantly. Biosolids have been found to affect both the grain size distribution patterns, the Atterberg Limits (Liquid Limits (LL), Plasticity indices (PI), California Bearing Rations (CBRs), Proctor Compaction indices such as Maximum Dry Densities (MDD); Optimum Moisture Contents (OMC), Soil friction angles () & cohesion values (c) and to an extent Ultimate Bearing Capacities (ϥult. & ϥallow). Biosolids applied on two types of tropical soils classified as slightly to medium plastic (lateritic (CL) and Sandy (SP) soils) batched and mixed at four different percentage levels of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by weight of sample indicated that % biosolids in the soils positively correlated with the Total Organic Contents (TOC) while inversely correlating with the Moisture content in the lateritic soils to a limiting value at 15%, while in the basically sandy soil it was at the 20% biosolids treatment. The infiltration rate increased to a peak at 13.5% biosolids content and thereafter decreased, while in the basically sandy soil, addition of biosolids caused the infiltration rate to fluctuate. It has also been observed that 100kN is the critical stress under which high volume reduction is recorded in all cases of biosolids treatments. The 5 to 10% biosolids treatment range experienced minimum volume change (∆v) compared to the 15 to 20% biosolids treatment range. The wide gap observed existing between 15 – 20% and 0 – 10% biosolids treatment ranges tends to suggest the existence of two groups of biosolids-treated lateritic soils namely: the Low and High Compressible Lateritic soils.
Keywords
Biosolids Pollution, Geo-environmental Engineering Properties, Pollution Indices
To cite this article
So-ngo Clifford Teme, Vincent Onuoha, The Impact of Biosolids on the Geotechnical Properties of Some Soils of the Niger Delta Sub-region, Nigeria, Journal of Biomaterials. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2020, pp. 1-16. doi: 10.11648/j.jb.20200401.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Indiana Administrative Code, (2003), Land Application of biosolids, industrial waste products and pollutant-bearing water. Article 6. 1. Water Pollution Control Board.
[2]
Harrison, Z. E. and Eaton, M. M., (2001). The Role of Municipalities in Regulating the Land Application of Sewage Sludges and Septage. Natural Resources Journal, Vol. 41, pp. 1-47.
[3]
Aguilar, R and Loftin, S. R. (1991). Sewage sludge application in semiarid grasslands: Effects on runoff and surface water quality. In proc. 36th Annual New Mexico Water Conference. Tech. Rept. 265. New Mexico Water Resources Institute, Las Cruces pp. 101-111.
[4]
Aguilar, R. and Loftin, S. R. (1994). Sewage sludge application in semiarid grasslands: Effects of vegetation and water quality. New Mexico Water Resources Institute, 112pp.
[5]
Tsadilas, C. D., Mitsios, I. K., and Golia, E., (2005). Influence of biosolids application on some soil physical properties. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Vol. 36, pp. 709-716.
[6]
Sort, X. and Alcaniz, J. M. (1999). Modification of soil porosity after application of sewage sludge. Soil Tillage Res., Vol. 49, pp. 337-345.
[7]
Guidi, G., Petruzzelli, G., and Giachetti, M., (1983). Effect of three fractions extracted from an aerobic and an anaerobic sewage sludge on the water stability and surface area of soil aggregates. Soil Sci. Vol. 136, pp. 158-163.
[8]
Fresquez, P. R, Francis, RE. and Dennis, G. L. (1990). Effects of sewage sludge on soil and plant quality in a degraded, semiarid grassland. J. Environ. Qual. Vol. 19, pp. 324-329.
[9]
Harry, I. M., (2007). Production of biosolids from faecal sludge in Port Harcourt, Nigeria using drying beds and assessment of the sustainability of the biosolids in maize production. Unpublished Ph. D. thesis. Institute of Geosciences and Space Technology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
[10]
Otunyo, W. A. (1993). Effects of Crude oil Pollution on the Geotechnical Properties of Soils in Rivers State of Nigeria. An unpublished Doctoral thesis, Institute of Geosciences and Space Technology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. 208 pages..
[11]
Arora, K. R. (2008). Soil mechanics and Foundation engineering (Geotechnical engineering). Delhi, Standard Publishers Distributors. 933pp.
[12]
Holtz, R. D, (1980-82), Personal communications in Graduate school at Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.
[13]
Holtz, R. D, and Kovacs (1981), An Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering, Prentice-Hall Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics Series 733 pages.
[14]
Holtz, R. D., Kovacs W. D. and Sheahan, T. C. (2018), An Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering, Second Edition, Published by Pearson Education, Inc. 863 pages.
[15]
B. S. 1377 (1975), “Methods of Test for Soils for Civil Engineering Purposes”, LONDON British Standards Institution.
[16]
B. S. 5930 (1981), “Code of Practice for Site Investigations (formerly C. P. 2001)”, LONDON: British Standards Institution.
[17]
Casagrande, A. (1948). Classification and identification of soils. Trans. Am. Assoc. Of Civil Engineers, Vol. 113, p. 901-929.
[18]
Onuoha, V. U. (1985). Some Geotechnical properties of the rocks of the Mamu Formation in the Enugu Area. An unpublished M. Sc. thesis, Department of Geology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. 78 pages.
[19]
Rostagno, C. M. and Sosebee, R. E. (2001b). Surface application of biosolids in Chihuahuan desert: Effect on soil properties. Arid Land Resources Management, Vol. 15, pp. 233- 244.
[20]
Moffet, C. A., (1997). Quantity and quality of runoff from two biosolids-amended Chihuahuan Desert grassland soils. Unpublished M. Sc thesis. Texas Technical Univ., Lubbock.
[21]
Onuoha, V. U. (2008). The effects of Biosolids land application on Geotechnical Properties of Soils. An unpublished Doctoral thesis, Institute of Geosciences and Space Technology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. 248 pages.
[22]
Metcalf and Eddy Inc., (2003). Wastewater engineering treatment and reuse, p. 1819. Revised by Tchobanoglous, G., Burton, F. L. Stensel, H. D., 4th ed. Tata McGraw-Hill Publ. Co. Ltd, New Delhi. 1819 pp.
[23]
Smith (Jr.), Al J. (1981), “Managing Hazardous Substances Accidents”, New York: McGraw Hill Book Company.
[24]
USEPA, (1984) United States Environmental Protection Agency. Use and disposal of municipal wastewater sludge. EPA/625/10-84/003. Cincinnati, OH. pp. 101-118.
[25]
USEPA, (1990) United States Environmental Protection Agency. National Sewage Sludge Survey: Availability of information and data, and anticipated impacts on proposed regulations, 45 pp.
[26]
USEPA, (1993) United States Environmental Protection Agency. 40 CFR Parts 257 and 503, Standards for the disposal of sewage sludges Federal Register, pp. 84-96.
[27]
USEPA, (1995) United States Environmental Protection Agency. Process Design manual: Land Application of Sewage Sludge and Domestic Septage129. Office of Research and Dev., U. S. EPA/625/R-95/001, 40pp.
[28]
USEPA, (1999) United States Environmental Protection Agency, (1999). Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet: Septage Treatment/Disposal. Office of Water Washington, 89pp.
[29]
WEF, (1998) Water Environment Federation. Design of wastewater treatment plants, 4th ed. Manual of Practice, no. 8, Vol. 3, WEF, Alexandria VA., 20pp.
[30]
Teme S. C. and Otunyo, W. (1999) Effect of crude oil Pollution on the Geotechnical Characteristic of Sub-Soil in the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria Proc. Conf. On Geotechnical Engineering Practice in the next Millenium. Nigerian. Geotechnical Association (NGA) Lagos. 6 pages
[31]
Teme, S. C., (2002), “Rocks, Soil and Water: Their Impact on Man in Space and Time”. 8th Professorial Inaugural Lecture delivered at the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 66 pages.
Browse journals by subject